Gap Small Group Instruction Powerpoint

Small Group IEP PowerPoint Seravallo.pdf Google Drive

Small Group Instruction Ideas For Middle and High School

small group instruction powerpoint

Mapping the Year Wachusett Regional School District. Guided instruction is based on formative assessment Students are grouped and regrouped based on their performance, not how the teacher perceives their ability. Guided instruction is dependent on good formative assessment information. It is how teacher form groups and decide what to teach to these groups., Differentiated Instruction Powerpoint For Pd Workshop ways to hear and review directions so that they do not need to interrupt instruction or a teacher’s work with a small group. Directions can be written on index cards, tape recorded, and/or posted on an overhead or chart paper in the room. System for student questions: Decide on steps that students should take before they ask the.

Small group rotation Powerpoint on a timer just push

GUIDED INSTRUCTION PD Notes SRHS Collaboration Suite. SPECIALLY-DESIGNED INSTRUCTION in CO-TAUGHT CLASSROOMS Coastal GLRS June 2015 Jennifer Popkin, M.Ed. Charity Roberts, Ed.D. Learning Targets •Participants will utilize tools to provide specially-designed instruction in all parts of a standards-based lesson in the Co-Taught classroom. •Participants will utilize tools to conduct effective planning sessions with co-teachers using provided, Small Group Instruction: Teacher Best Practices Grouping students 1. How do I group my students? Four to eight students can be grouped by reading level as determined by assessment or by reading skills needed. These groups should be flexible and fluid throughout the year. Focus is on Strategy development and individual skills 1. How does small.

Small-group teaching and learning has achieved an admirable position in medical education and has become more popular as a means of encouraging the students in their studies and enhance the process of deep learning. The main characteristics of small group Small group instruction usually follows whole group instruction and provides students with a reduced student-teacher ratio, typically in groups of two to four students. Whole group instruction is a teaching method where the teacher provides direct instruction to the whole group—usually a class.

There are many ways to train small group leaders. We'll show you how to train one-on-one, in coaching sessions, and through training events. We know you have limited time to train, so make the most of your time with these strategies. Small Group Instruction: Teacher Best Practices Grouping students 1. How do I group my students? Four to eight students can be grouped by reading level as determined by assessment or by reading skills needed. These groups should be flexible and fluid throughout the year. Focus is on Strategy development and individual skills 1. How does small

Most ELL students are fully integrated into literacy classes at Hoover These students use to be in an ELL class for literacy up until this school year This creates Group Students with Similar Needs for Small Group Instruction. Key Concepts. Use instructional profiles to match assessment information with appropriate instruction. The key point of placing students in instructional profiles is to ensure that students are provided with instruction that meets their identified needs. To differentiate, teachers can vary the content focus, amount of time spent on

NYC Helpline: How To: Develop as a Professional The Power of Small Group Instruction Theresa London Cooper. One habit of effective professionals is reflection. As teachers, we ponder how best to meet the needs of our students, and then, we take action. Effective Small Group Teaching Office of Medical Education Creighton University School of Medicine &8620. Module Objectives After completing this module, the learner will be able to •Describe educational outcomes of small group learning •Describe strategies for developing effective groups •Modify a checklist for preparing to teach in small groups •Describe attributes of an effective

Because there are more exchanges among students in small groups, your students receive more personal feedback about their ideas and responses. This feedback is often not possible in large-group instruction, in which one or two students exchange ideas and the rest of the class listens. NYC Helpline: How To: Develop as a Professional The Power of Small Group Instruction Theresa London Cooper. One habit of effective professionals is reflection. As teachers, we ponder how best to meet the needs of our students, and then, we take action.

Small group instruction is one of the teachers’ key levers for supporting students. Teachers often utilize the time to review student data, set goals, support struggling students, and teach, reteach, or remediate instruction. Though students self-select into activities like small group instruction, teachers will often suggest or request Group Students with Similar Needs for Small Group Instruction. Key Concepts. Use instructional profiles to match assessment information with appropriate instruction. The key point of placing students in instructional profiles is to ensure that students are provided with instruction that meets their identified needs. To differentiate, teachers can vary the content focus, amount of time spent on

small-group instruction in the form of guided reading has become widely used within a comprehensive framework for literacy instruction (Fountas & Pinnell, 1996). The framework provides for rich language-based experi-ences with a variety of texts in whole-group, small-group, and individual settings (see Fountas & Pinnell, 2006 for Small-group teaching and learning has achieved an admirable position in medical education and has become more popular as a means of encouraging the students in their studies and enhance the process of deep learning. The main characteristics of small group

Because there are more exchanges among students in small groups, your students receive more personal feedback about their ideas and responses. This feedback is often not possible in large-group instruction, in which one or two students exchange ideas and the rest of the class listens. There are many ways to train small group leaders. We'll show you how to train one-on-one, in coaching sessions, and through training events. We know you have limited time to train, so make the most of your time with these strategies.

Why is small group instruction important? Advantages of Small Group Instruction Easier to monitor the work of each student. Teacher is able to better monitor behavior. Teacher has flexibility in choosing materials. Students that will not speak up in the whole group setting feel Effective Teaching and Instructional Technique helpful in effective learning and effective training.

Why is small group instruction important? Advantages of Small Group Instruction Easier to monitor the work of each student. Teacher is able to better monitor behavior. Teacher has flexibility in choosing materials. Students that will not speak up in the whole group setting feel NYC Helpline: How To: Develop as a Professional The Power of Small Group Instruction Theresa London Cooper. One habit of effective professionals is reflection. As teachers, we ponder how best to meet the needs of our students, and then, we take action.

How the Children Transition to Small Group. As we move from large group to small group, I call out the table numbers one by one. The kids look at the boards to see where they are supposed to go. That’s it! It all works very smoothly. Of course, at the beginning of the year, it was not smooth, so I had to train them to get to this point. Using technology to differentiate instruction can be overwhelming for many teachers. Read these 9 tips to see how you can easily meet the needs of your students

Small Group and Independent Seatwork: Points to Consider zProvide instructions for independent seatwork before small group work begins. zBegin small group instruction only after independent seatwork is going smoothly. zBuild natural stopping points within the small group lesson. zPraise on-task independent workers while teaching the small group lesson. Small Group Instruction What it is and is not… Why Small Groups? Fill in gaps in students’ learning To scaffold instruction so they can practice with support and be successful After you have formatively assessed them- to intervene and to challenge To layer lessons for optimal growth- 2’s to 3’s….3’s to 4’s Chunking the Text and Text Coding During Symbol and When to use it

Small Group Instruction: Teacher Best Practices Grouping students 1. How do I group my students? Four to eight students can be grouped by reading level as determined by assessment or by reading skills needed. These groups should be flexible and fluid throughout the year. Focus is on Strategy development and individual skills 1. How does small Learn how to use pre assessment data and student observations to create the most effective and efficient small groups for Math Workshop in your classroom. These strategies make differentiating math small groups quick and easy.

Small Group Teaching StrategiesauthorSTREAM

small group instruction powerpoint

Small Group Guided Math Lesson Plan Template Freebie by. Effective small group instruction is a key tool to use in any classroom. It is essential in the ELA classroom to help all students achieve success. Small group instruction looks different in every classroom – sometimes it is a structured intervention program, other times it is the teacher working with a small group of students on a focused task like guided reading or writing. Whatever your, 29/09/2016 · Small group is the best way to move students and help them learn. In this video I show you how I organize my guided reading and guided math time. I take you from start to ….

Effective Classroom Management Strategies for Use During

small group instruction powerpoint

Basic steps in establishing effective small group teaching. Group Students with Similar Needs for Small Group Instruction. Key Concepts. Use instructional profiles to match assessment information with appropriate instruction. The key point of placing students in instructional profiles is to ensure that students are provided with instruction that meets their identified needs. To differentiate, teachers can vary the content focus, amount of time spent on https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Response_to_intervention Most ELL students are fully integrated into literacy classes at Hoover These students use to be in an ELL class for literacy up until this school year This creates.

small group instruction powerpoint


Teachers who utilize small group instruction strategies work with a few learners— usually two to four at a time—on specific concepts and objectives. The reduced student-teacher ratio allows educators to connect with individual students, reinforce concepts and assess comprehension. Small Group Instruction in the Primary Grades (K-2) Marcia Uretsky CACD, Tufts University July, 2008 Workshop Goals What is Essential About Small Group Instruction? Types of Small Group Instruction Step by Step Guide to Planning Small Group Instruction Selecting and Introducing Texts to Support Readers Systems for Organizing Small Groups Common Traps to Avoid Focus Lesson -Interactive Read

Small-group teaching and learning has achieved an admirable position in medical education and has become more popular as a means of encouraging the students in their studies and enhance the process of deep learning. The main characteristics of small group Small group instruction looks different in every classroom - sometimes it is a structured intervention program, other times it is the teacher working with a small group of students on a focused task like guided reading or writing. Several great strategies Small Group Instruction Ideas For Middle and High School Classrooms - 2 Peas and a Dog

Small Group and Independent Seatwork: Points to Consider zProvide instructions for independent seatwork before small group work begins. zBegin small group instruction only after independent seatwork is going smoothly. zBuild natural stopping points within the small group lesson. zPraise on-task independent workers while teaching the small group lesson. Small Group and Independent Seatwork: Points to Consider zProvide instructions for independent seatwork before small group work begins. zBegin small group instruction only after independent seatwork is going smoothly. zBuild natural stopping points within the small group lesson. zPraise on-task independent workers while teaching the small group lesson.

Effective small group instruction is a key tool to use in any classroom. It is essential in the ELA classroom to help all students achieve success. Small group instruction looks different in every classroom – sometimes it is a structured intervention program, other times it is the teacher working with a small group of students on a focused task like guided reading or writing. Whatever your Small Group Instruction in the Primary Grades (K-2) Marcia Uretsky CACD, Tufts University July, 2008 Workshop Goals What is Essential About Small Group Instruction? Types of Small Group Instruction Step by Step Guide to Planning Small Group Instruction Selecting and Introducing Texts to Support Readers Systems for Organizing Small Groups Common Traps to Avoid Focus Lesson -Interactive Read

Teach Your Child To Read - Small group rotation Powerpoint - on a timer, just push play and it changes the groups for you! included in a Guided Reading bundle - TEACH YOUR CHILD TO READ and Enable Your Child to Become a Fast and Fluent Reader! When you plan a book for small group reading, think about which comprehension strategy will be most suited to the book, which is most needed by your students, and what fits with the instruction you’ve provided in whole group instruction. Duffy handout – rainbow book pg 123 (bottom)-124

Today we will talk about my Small Group Instruction! My Small Group Instruction takes place every day. I meet with each group for 15-20 minutes. I always start with my Strategic Intervention group. All of my small group lessons revolve around one of my Guided Practice Workmats that is directly correlated to the skill that … Guided Math: Small Group Instruction Read More » SPECIALLY-DESIGNED INSTRUCTION in CO-TAUGHT CLASSROOMS Coastal GLRS June 2015 Jennifer Popkin, M.Ed. Charity Roberts, Ed.D. Learning Targets •Participants will utilize tools to provide specially-designed instruction in all parts of a standards-based lesson in the Co-Taught classroom. •Participants will utilize tools to conduct effective planning sessions with co-teachers using provided

PowerPoint presentations work like slide shows. To convey a message or a story, you break it down into slides. Think of each slide as a blank canvas for the pictures and words that help you tell your story. 6 Aug 2015 Know- how to effectively develop and implement a classroom management system for instructional and behavioral purposes. They will also know the They will understand the expectations for each segment of the 90-minute Literacy block (whole group, small group, whole group closure).

small group instruction powerpoint

Teach Your Child To Read - Small group rotation Powerpoint - on a timer, just push play and it changes the groups for you! included in a Guided Reading bundle - TEACH YOUR CHILD TO READ and Enable Your Child to Become a Fast and Fluent Reader! Small group instruction usually follows whole group instruction. It allows teachers to work more closely with each student, reinforce skills learned in the whole group instruction, and check for student understanding. Small group instruction is for specific learning objectives. Groups can consist of 2-6 students and they provide smaller teacher

Effective Teaching and Instructional Techniques ppt

small group instruction powerpoint

Making the Most of Small Group Instruction – Peppy Zesty. 03/01/2013 · This video will help teachers with small group instruction. This differentiation of instruction using small group strategies will provide an effective, engaging, learning environment by creating a, Designing Small Group Reading Instruction Pflugerville ISD-Language Arts Carol Trovall & Jodi L. Witt The Continuum of Literacy Learning: A GUIDE to Teaching Students – A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on PowerShow.com - id: 3c4ca8-ZDk2O.

Mapping the Year Wachusett Regional School District

Small Group Teaching StrategiesauthorSTREAM. NYC Helpline: How To: Develop as a Professional The Power of Small Group Instruction Theresa London Cooper. One habit of effective professionals is reflection. As teachers, we ponder how best to meet the needs of our students, and then, we take action., Using technology to differentiate instruction can be overwhelming for many teachers. Read these 9 tips to see how you can easily meet the needs of your students.

How the Children Transition to Small Group. As we move from large group to small group, I call out the table numbers one by one. The kids look at the boards to see where they are supposed to go. That’s it! It all works very smoothly. Of course, at the beginning of the year, it was not smooth, so I had to train them to get to this point. Why is small group instruction important? Advantages of Small Group Instruction Easier to monitor the work of each student. Teacher is able to better monitor behavior. Teacher has flexibility in choosing materials. Students that will not speak up in the whole group setting feel

To help create lessons that engage and resonate with a diverse classroom, below are 20 differentiated instruction strategies and examples. Available in a condensed and printable list for your desk, you can use 16 in most classes and the last four for math lessons. Try the ones that best apply to you, depending on factors such as student age. 1 Small Group and Independent Seatwork: Points to Consider zProvide instructions for independent seatwork before small group work begins. zBegin small group instruction only after independent seatwork is going smoothly. zBuild natural stopping points within the small group lesson. zPraise on-task independent workers while teaching the small group lesson.

Today we will talk about my Small Group Instruction! My Small Group Instruction takes place every day. I meet with each group for 15-20 minutes. I always start with my Strategic Intervention group. All of my small group lessons revolve around one of my Guided Practice Workmats that is directly correlated to the skill that … Guided Math: Small Group Instruction Read More » Today we will talk about my Small Group Instruction! My Small Group Instruction takes place every day. I meet with each group for 15-20 minutes. I always start with my Strategic Intervention group. All of my small group lessons revolve around one of my Guided Practice Workmats that is directly correlated to the skill that … Guided Math: Small Group Instruction Read More »

Hey, Friends! First off I know you’re reading this thinking, ‘who on EARTH has time for so many small groups’? I agree that is IS tough to manage small groups effectively every week. We do what we can and if we can’t meet with everyone so many times a week, we’re human, it’s not like we’re not working hard to try. Before I even begin with how I run my small groups, I want to chat How the Children Transition to Small Group. As we move from large group to small group, I call out the table numbers one by one. The kids look at the boards to see where they are supposed to go. That’s it! It all works very smoothly. Of course, at the beginning of the year, it was not smooth, so I had to train them to get to this point.

Small Group and Independent Seatwork: Points to Consider zProvide instructions for independent seatwork before small group work begins. zBegin small group instruction only after independent seatwork is going smoothly. zBuild natural stopping points within the small group lesson. zPraise on-task independent workers while teaching the small group lesson. Small Group Instruction: Teacher Best Practices Grouping students 1. How do I group my students? Four to eight students can be grouped by reading level as determined by assessment or by reading skills needed. These groups should be flexible and fluid throughout the year. Focus is on Strategy development and individual skills 1. How does small

The Impact of Small Groups . The Impact on Student Achievement within Small Groups Based on Learning Styles, Interest, and Student Readiness . Katie Moyer . Third Grade Teacher . Altoona Area School District . Masters in Teaching . Margygrove College . March, 2011 Small Group Instruction What it is and is not… Why Small Groups? Fill in gaps in students’ learning To scaffold instruction so they can practice with support and be successful After you have formatively assessed them- to intervene and to challenge To layer lessons for optimal growth- 2’s to 3’s….3’s to 4’s Chunking the Text and Text Coding During Symbol and When to use it

Small Group and Independent Seatwork: Points to Consider zProvide instructions for independent seatwork before small group work begins. zBegin small group instruction only after independent seatwork is going smoothly. zBuild natural stopping points within the small group lesson. zPraise on-task independent workers while teaching the small group lesson. 18/11/2008В В· Small group teaching is optimal for active learning, which is becoming regarded as an essential element at all levels of education and which typically is not present in the traditional passive lecture. This is one technique for generating open communication among all the participants of the group and also between the group and the facilitator.

Differentiated Instruction Powerpoint For Pd Workshop ways to hear and review directions so that they do not need to interrupt instruction or a teacher’s work with a small group. Directions can be written on index cards, tape recorded, and/or posted on an overhead or chart paper in the room. System for student questions: Decide on steps that students should take before they ask the Small Group Instruction ERF Training Dr. Mary Abbott February 27, 2009 Information in this presentation is available for noncommercial use only. You may use the information provided that:

Because there are more exchanges among students in small groups, your students receive more personal feedback about their ideas and responses. This feedback is often not possible in large-group instruction, in which one or two students exchange ideas and the rest of the class listens. Effective Small Group Teaching Office of Medical Education Creighton University School of Medicine &8620. Module Objectives After completing this module, the learner will be able to •Describe educational outcomes of small group learning •Describe strategies for developing effective groups •Modify a checklist for preparing to teach in small groups •Describe attributes of an effective

Personal Experience I created this template to help guide my math instruction during math workshop. I normally teach 15 minutes of whole group and then the kids split into small groups. Some of the kids are working at centers, while the others join me at my small group table. I have found that th... A visual teaser for my post on small group instruction including tips for minimizing wasted time during transitions, keeping your students independently capable of coming to small group time fully prepared with the correct supplies, and how to eliminate the visual noise and classroom clutter that often times accompanies well-planned small group instruction blocks.

PowerPoint presentations work like slide shows. To convey a message or a story, you break it down into slides. Think of each slide as a blank canvas for the pictures and words that help you tell your story. Behavior & Classroom Management Strategies for Reading Teachers Chris Borgmeier, Ph.D. Portland State University cborgmei@pdx.edu (503)725-5469. Agenda nIntroduction nBehavior & Learning nSetting up your Students for Success В®Defining & Teaching Behavioral Expectations В®Reinforcing Expected Behavior В®Effective Scanning and Monitoring nInstructional variables related to Behavior

Small Group Instruction in the Primary Grades (K-2) Marcia Uretsky CACD, Tufts University July, 2008 Workshop Goals What is Essential About Small Group Instruction? Types of Small Group Instruction Step by Step Guide to Planning Small Group Instruction Selecting and Introducing Texts to Support Readers Systems for Organizing Small Groups Common Traps to Avoid Focus Lesson -Interactive Read If you don’t have another adult, you can use this space for student small group work or a learning station. Desks (purple squares) can be manipulated so students can work independently, in small groups, or in pairs. Each student should, if possible, have a “home base” desk that they go to when they first come to class. Note: facilitator

18/11/2008В В· Small group teaching is optimal for active learning, which is becoming regarded as an essential element at all levels of education and which typically is not present in the traditional passive lecture. This is one technique for generating open communication among all the participants of the group and also between the group and the facilitator. Behavior & Classroom Management Strategies for Reading Teachers Chris Borgmeier, Ph.D. Portland State University cborgmei@pdx.edu (503)725-5469. Agenda nIntroduction nBehavior & Learning nSetting up your Students for Success В®Defining & Teaching Behavioral Expectations В®Reinforcing Expected Behavior В®Effective Scanning and Monitoring nInstructional variables related to Behavior

Small Group Instruction ERF Training Dr. Mary Abbott February 27, 2009 Information in this presentation is available for noncommercial use only. You may use the information provided that: Small-group instruction offers an environment for teachers to provide students extensive opportunities to express what they know and receive feedback from other students and the teacher.
Instructional conversations are easier to conduct and support with a small group of students (Goldenberg, 1993).
Not sporadic instruction.
- it

Small Group Instruction Minds in Bloom

small group instruction powerpoint

Effective Small Group Teaching Creighton University. Small Group and Independent Seatwork: Points to Consider zProvide instructions for independent seatwork before small group work begins. zBegin small group instruction only after independent seatwork is going smoothly. zBuild natural stopping points within the small group lesson. zPraise on-task independent workers while teaching the small group lesson., Group Students with Similar Needs for Small Group Instruction. Key Concepts. Use instructional profiles to match assessment information with appropriate instruction. The key point of placing students in instructional profiles is to ensure that students are provided with instruction that meets their identified needs. To differentiate, teachers can vary the content focus, amount of time spent on.

GUIDED INSTRUCTION PD Notes SRHS Collaboration Suite

small group instruction powerpoint

Effective Classroom Management Strategies for Use During. small-group instruction in the form of guided reading has become widely used within a comprehensive framework for literacy instruction (Fountas & Pinnell, 1996). The framework provides for rich language-based experi-ences with a variety of texts in whole-group, small-group, and individual settings (see Fountas & Pinnell, 2006 for https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fonds_de_placement Small-group teaching and learning has achieved an admirable position in medical education and has become more popular as a means of encouraging the students in their studies and enhance the process of deep learning. The main characteristics of small group.

small group instruction powerpoint

  • Guided Math Small Group Instruction Simply Skilled Teaching
  • Small Group IEP PowerPoint Seravallo.pdf Google Drive

  • Small Group Instruction What it is and is not… Why Small Groups? Fill in gaps in students’ learning To scaffold instruction so they can practice with support and be successful After you have formatively assessed them- to intervene and to challenge To layer lessons for optimal growth- 2’s to 3’s….3’s to 4’s Chunking the Text and Text Coding During Symbol and When to use it Personal Experience I created this template to help guide my math instruction during math workshop. I normally teach 15 minutes of whole group and then the kids split into small groups. Some of the kids are working at centers, while the others join me at my small group table. I have found that th...

    How the Children Transition to Small Group. As we move from large group to small group, I call out the table numbers one by one. The kids look at the boards to see where they are supposed to go. That’s it! It all works very smoothly. Of course, at the beginning of the year, it was not smooth, so I had to train them to get to this point. 18/11/2008 · Small group teaching is optimal for active learning, which is becoming regarded as an essential element at all levels of education and which typically is not present in the traditional passive lecture. This is one technique for generating open communication among all the participants of the group and also between the group and the facilitator.

    If you don’t have another adult, you can use this space for student small group work or a learning station. Desks (purple squares) can be manipulated so students can work independently, in small groups, or in pairs. Each student should, if possible, have a “home base” desk that they go to when they first come to class. Note: facilitator PowerPoint presentations work like slide shows. To convey a message or a story, you break it down into slides. Think of each slide as a blank canvas for the pictures and words that help you tell your story.

    Today we will talk about my Small Group Instruction! My Small Group Instruction takes place every day. I meet with each group for 15-20 minutes. I always start with my Strategic Intervention group. All of my small group lessons revolve around one of my Guided Practice Workmats that is directly correlated to the skill that … Guided Math: Small Group Instruction Read More » Effective small group instruction is a key tool to use in any classroom. It is essential in the ELA classroom to help all students achieve success. Small group instruction looks different in every classroom – sometimes it is a structured intervention program, other times it is the teacher working with a small group of students on a focused task like guided reading or writing. Whatever your

    Small-group instruction offers an environment for teachers to provide students extensive opportunities to express what they know and receive feedback from other students and the teacher.
    Instructional conversations are easier to conduct and support with a small group of students (Goldenberg, 1993).
    Not sporadic instruction.
    - it Small group instruction is one of the teachers’ key levers for supporting students. Teachers often utilize the time to review student data, set goals, support struggling students, and teach, reteach, or remediate instruction. Though students self-select into activities like small group instruction, teachers will often suggest or request

    There are many ways to train small group leaders. We'll show you how to train one-on-one, in coaching sessions, and through training events. We know you have limited time to train, so make the most of your time with these strategies. Last week I shared how I use Powerpoint for my centers management for reading centers. Students have a new rotation each day so that they work through a variety of centers throughout the week and it was taking me too much time to switch out cards every morning.

    Small group instruction is effective because teaching is focused precisely on what the students need to learn next to move forward. Ongoing observation of your students, combined with systematic assessment enables you to draw together groups of students who fit a particular instructional profile. — Fountas & Pinnell Small-group teaching and learning has achieved an admirable position in medical education and has become more popular as a means of encouraging the students in their studies and enhance the process of deep learning. The main characteristics of small group

    A visual teaser for my post on small group instruction including tips for minimizing wasted time during transitions, keeping your students independently capable of coming to small group time fully prepared with the correct supplies, and how to eliminate the visual noise and classroom clutter that often times accompanies well-planned small group instruction blocks. Effective Teaching and Instructional Technique helpful in effective learning and effective training.

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